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Easier to test

In a GraphQL query, we ask for entities, also called “Types”. Since each type gets a dedicated handler, it will be fairly easy to unit test them.


By its nature, GraphQL is hierarchical and follows relationships between objects, as opposed to Rest where you might need additional requests to fetch linked data. Once again, when writing your query, you control the structure of the answer you want.

Strongly typed

Unlike Rest APIs, GraphQL strongly relies on types within its schema, and gives you the ability to create your own types on top of its internal types. This Type System allows GraphQL to provide descriptive error messages before executing a query.

Example of a bad parameter type:

This Type System highly contributes to all the tooling available around GraphQL, such as mock-server from graphql-tools for instance.


Every GraphQL server comes with a tool called GraphiQL , which is a UI to execute queries, explore the schema and access documentation.

Since the whole schema is easily available on the client through GraphiQL, we can enjoy efficient auto-completion and light but complete documentation, depending on how well description is put on each field:

We can also query the schema itself and ask for its structure. This is called “ introspection ”.

With Swagger UI (a well-adopted standard to document APIs, example ), all you need as a consumer is a list of endpoints with a description of all parameters. Here with GraphQL, all you need is the schema. Apart from the schema, the problematic is the same and will depend on how much effort the dev team has put in the doc, by adding helpful comments to every field for example.

As you might have guessed, GraphQL also comes with some disadvantages. Let’s have a look at the main ones.

Server code is more complex but at the end, same code will be used to answer multiple use-cases.

Defining the schema is a bit verbose but once it’s done, our server will be able to answer multiple use-cases.

To consume a GraphQL API, several clients already exist, depending on your programming language. But they lack maturity compared to any client consuming Rest services.

The need to rethink caching since getting data through POST requests disables any caching by any proxy between the client and the server. Even if the query is in the URL using GET, caching will still be compromised, as the same entity / “resource” could be part of many different queries. If you want to learn more about this, official doc will help as well as this Relay doc page explaining how to cache a graph.

Treatment comprised concurrent CRT and subsequent consolidation chemotherapy. Chemotherapy regimen was selected at investigator’s discretion. The doses and schedules were in accordance with the published reports [ 7 , Recommend Online Boohoo Bride Squad Embroidered Nightshirt Fashion Style qjZlC
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]. All patients were treated with a linear accelerator photon beam of 4 MV or more. The primary tumor and involved nodal disease were to receive at least 60Gy in 2-Gy fractions over 6 weeks. Our radiation technique was based on elective nodal irradiation. The radiation fields contained the primary tumor, ipsilateral hilum, and mediastinal nodal areas from the paratracheal to subcarinal lymph nodes. The contralateral hilum was not included, and the supraclavicular areas were not routinely treated.

Tumor response was classified in accordance with the Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors (RECIST), ver. 1.1. In almost all patients, tumor response was assessed every 2 courses of chemotherapy. After the treatment period, chest computed tomography (CT) was done every 2 to 3 months during the first year and at 3 to 6 month intervals thereafter. Positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) using 2-[ F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( F-FDG) was performed at 6 to 12 month intervals if available. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed only when clinical signs and symptoms suspicious for brain involvement were present. PFS was assessed from the first day of treatment with CRT to the earliest signs of disease progression as determined by CT or MRI imaging using RECIST criteria, or death from any cause.

The primary outcome of this study was to evaluate the surrogacy of ORR and PFS rate at 3-month intervals (from 9 to 24 months after the initiation of treatment) for the 5-year survival rate. Landmark analyses were performed to assess the association of these outcomes with the 5-year survival rate.

A p value of < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival as a function of time. All the analyses were performed using JMP ver. 7 (SAS Institute Inc, USA) or R ver. 2. 15. 1. This retrospective analysis was approved by the institutional review board of Shizuoka Cancer Center.

Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma.

Table 2

Treatment characteristics

carboplatin, paclitaxel, cisplatin, vinorelbine, mitomycin, vindesine, and cisplatin, irinotecan, etoposide, radiation therapy.

Figure 1

Kaplan-Meier-estimated PFS (dashed line) and OS curve (bold line) in LA-NSCLC patients treated with concurrent CRT (n = 159).

Figure 2

Hazard ratio of landmark analysis at each time point. Dashed lines indicate 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: CR, complete response; PR, partial response.

Figure 3

Five-year survival rates of patients who achieved each outcome. The bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.

In this study, 159 LA-NSCLC patients treated with concurrent CRT were analyzed to evaluate the surrogacy of ORR and PFS rate at 3-month intervals for the 5-year survival rate. Kaplan-Meier curve of progression-free survival (Figure 1 ) and HR of landmark analysis at each time point (Figure 2 ) suggest that most of progression occurred in the first 2 years. Patients who maintained progression-free intervals longer than 2 years had a 5-year survival rate of approximately 90%, and the rate did not increase thereafter (Figure Dorothy Perkins Womens Chain Print Palazzo Trousers Outlet Order Online Discount Fashionable Free Shipping Shop For 4JDpll

Although ORR could be assessed in the early period of CRT, its surrogacy for the 5-year survival rate has not been fully evaluated. McAleer et al., did a combined analysis of two RTOG studies with CRT [ 13 ]. They reported that response to induction chemotherapy was a possible predictor of long survival (p = 0.06). Kim et al., also reported that responders demonstrated 5-fold long term survival compared with non-responders among LA-NSCLC patients treated with CRT [ 14 ]. However, in McAleer’s report, Kaplan-Meier curves of OS revealed that 90% of responders died within 4 years. Furthermore, Kim’s report was premature because the median follow-up time was only 489 days. Our analysis, with a longer follow up period, demonstrated that the ORR was not a favorable surrogate marker for the 5-year survival rate.

With regard to median PFS, Mauguen et al., conducted a meta-analysis of LA-NSCLC. They found a very good correlation between median PFS and OS both at the individual level and trial level (ρ range; 0.77-0.85, R2 range; 0.89-0.97, respectively) [ 15 ]. However, it is worth noting that their analysis contained relatively old trials. The median survival time of 15 months reported by Mauguen et al. was much shorter than that in a recent phase III trial, which reported a median survival time of 29 months [ 16 ]. This prolongation of survival may account for the development of post progression therapy, as the median PFS did not differ between the 2 reports. This might be a cause for concern about the relationship between median PFS and OS. In fact, our analysis showed that the 5-year survival rates in patients who were disease free at 9–12months were only 53-69%. The rate gradually increased in accordance with progression-free interval extended, and reached a plateau at 90% after 24 months. This suggests that longer progression-free period, not median PFS, is required to identify cured patients.

The present study has several limitations. First, this study contained various chemotherapy regimens, and the timing of evaluatton depended on investigators because this was a retrospective study. Second, efficacy results were slightly better than previous reports. In our analysis, about 70% of patients were screened with PET (or PET-CT) at diagnosis, and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was adopted in all cases. These contributed to accurate staging, and proper radiation therapy. In addition, the proportion of patients who received post progression therapy was very high (approximately 80%).

Our study suggests that PFS at 2 years could be a reliable surrogate endpoint for 5-year survival rate in LA-NSCLC patients treated with concurrent CRT. Further analysis is warranted using prospective datasets.


We thank Charles McKay who provided medical assistance.

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Authors’ original file for figure 1
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Authors’ original file for figure 2
12885_2013_4261_MOESM3_ESM.tiff Authors’ original file for figure 3

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

There is basically nothing to the song, really, but this was one of my favorites to play guitar to back in the early 80’s. It f*cking rocks, but a songster analysis would probably say it sucks in structure. Oh well. I like it. : beerbang :

Def Leppard - Another Hit And Run
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Hey Patrick, I was just thinking about you this weekend, noticing you hadn’t been around for a while. Welcome back! And thanks for the comments.

Chordwainer Regular
Feb '17

Thanks everyone for all the pointers. Lately I’ve been trying to take a more deliberate, and deliberative, approach to songwriting and have been reading up on structures and so forth. Plus there is lots of commentary out there for the mixing process that uses this kind of terminology too (reading Mike Senior’s book at the moment, which has been the spark for this and many other ideas). Realized I didn’t know a lot of stuff that I thought I did… pretty common experience for me!!

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Hey Patrick, I was just thinking about you this weekend, noticing you hadn’t been around for a while. Welcome back! And thanks for the comments

Yeah, I’m sorry if I hadn’t been around lately. Although I like the place (and people!), I’m trying to stay off the internet ATM and use the little time I have to do some music… You can hear one of my last attempts here: Cheap Sale Wide Range Of Selected Femme Wrap Slinky Jumpsuit Sale Supply Sale Factory Outlet Cheap Deals kWOigrL

Feb '17

Think I remember this from an interview with Steve Cropper and Duck Dunn… But a middle 8 is usually based upon the chords of the verse or a simplified version thereof. And a bridge is usually built from differing but complimentary chords. So a middle 8 would be a place for solos and ad libs but no verse vocals and a bridge is meant to take you temporarily away from the original flow of the tune. I have no help from Steve and Duck on prechorus… But I think that anything that sets up the chorus can be considered a prechorus. Even if it’s just a build or shift in the verse leading into it… Have fun rich

Paul999 Admin
Feb '17

This is a GREAT topic. Here is how I usually explain it. The pre chorus is a part that takes you from the verse into the chorus and happens more than once in the song. The lyrics may or may not repeat every time its played. A bridge typically only happens once in a song and if it has lyrics they are usually from a different perspective then the other lyrics in the song or lyrics support the story line from a different angle.

The “Middle 8”. I don’t like this term because it generally, as I understand it, means you have 8 bars or 8 chords (Which of course not all bridges have 8 bars or chords). It is a slang term for bridge that I hear mostly country and folk musicians use. Usually song writers.

Chordwainer Regular
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It is a slang term for bridge that I hear mostly country and folk musicians use. Usually song writers.

A major hub for tourism, technology and finance, San Francisco is working to prepare its residents — and its buildings — for earthquakes and fires.

San Francisco’s Resilience Journey

The city of San Francisco released its Resilience Strategy on April 18, 2016. Explore the strategy.

San Francisco’s Resilience Story

San Francisco is a worldwide tourist destination, houses 30 of the world’s largest financial institutions, is a major technology hub for biotechnology and Internet commerce and has a history of devastating earthquakes and fires. San Francisco has a notably diverse population, and is also a vital link for air, sea, and ground transportation. The city’s innovative use of financing and building codes has dramatically improved building safety, and their use of social media to educate and motivate the public has influenced residents to take important steps in advancing their personal resilience.

Visit the City of San Francisco’s Resilient SF Website


Brian Strong is responsible for San Francisco’s Resilient SF strategy, 10-year Capital Plan, annual Capital Budget. He created the City’s first multi-year capital plan in 2006 and has been instrumental in the development and passage of $3.5 billion in G.O. bonds to improve San Francisco’s infrastructure. Brian has implemented a number of innovative resilience programs to protect San Francisco’s infrastructure including the creation of a Capital Planning Fund to support early project development, the Earthquake Safety and Emergency Response bond program; Sea Level Rise Guidelines; and building-by-building HAZUS seismic assessments.

Under Brian’s leadership, the Capital Planning Program received the 2011 Good Government Team Award from the Mayor’s Fiscal Advisory Committee and the San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association. He also serves as President of the Board for the San Francisco Community Investment Fund that distributes new market tax credits to promote economic development in disadvantaged communities.


population as of 2012

Bigger Than The Big One

Imagining an 8.5 magnitude quake, this piece fromconsiders how SF and the Bay Area could handle a disaster on this scale.

December 13, 2017

December 12, 2017

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